Question: What Is VEF Speed?

Why do pilots say heavy?

In the United States, the term heavy is used during radio transmissions between air traffic control and any aircraft which has been assigned a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) rating of 136 tonnes (300,000 lb) or more.

All aircraft produce wingtip vortices that create wake turbulence in flight.


Can VR be less than v1?

No. V1 can be equal to Vr, but not greater than it.

Can v1 be less than VMCG?

V1 is also the minimum speed at which a pilot can continue a takeoff after an engine failure. If an engine failure is detected after V1, the takeoff must be continued. This implies that the aircraft must be controllable on ground. Therefore, V1 is always greater than VMCG.

What is v2 speed?

V2 is the speed at which the airplane will climb in the event of an engine failure. It is known as the takeoff safety speed.

What is minimum maneuvering speed?

DMMS: Defined minimum maneuvering speed. This is similar to the speed that airline pilots polled in the video are referencing when they talk about maneuvering speed being a minimum, not a maximum. Gryder calculates the number as 1.404 times VS, to account for a margin above stall speed in up to a 30-degree bank.

How far can single engine plane fly?

It depends on the plane, the amount of fuel, and the altitude flown. Typically 4–6 hours for an average small plane. Pilots usually think of time in flight first. At small plane speeds of 120–180 miles per hour, that’s 480–720 miles for four hours.

Why does v1 increase with weight?

Since VR and V2 are directly related to weight, for an average runway, V1 will also be higher as weight increases since acceleration and deceleration are both a function of weight.

What is VAC speed?

VAC. — Missed-approach climb speed for flap configuration with critical engine inop (2.1 percent climb gradient).

How is VREF calculated?

VREF usually is defined by the aircraft operating manual (AOM) and/or the quick reference handbook (QRH) as: 1.3 x stall speed with full landing flaps or with selected landing flaps. Final approach speed is defined as: VREF + corrections.

Why do pilots say Niner?

The reason for these somewhat strange pronunciations is to encourage the pilot/controller to enunciate clearly, so that the numbers are clearly understood. … The reason for “Niner” is that “Nine” can be easily muffled, slurred, or confused with other words (particularly the number Five/Fife).

Why does stall speed increase in a turn?

When you turn, you need to increase your total lift to maintain altitude. You increase your total lift by increasing your angle of attack, which means you’re closer to stall than you were in wings-level flight. And, your stall speed increases in proportion to the square root of your load factor.

What is Vyse speed?

VYSE—best rate of climb speed with OEI. Marked with a blue radial line on most airspeed indicators. Above the single-engine absolute ceiling, VYSE yields the minimum rate of sink. … VREF—reference landing speed—an airspeed used for final approach, which adjust the normal approach speed for winds and gusty conditions.

What do pilots say before taking off?

ATC will either say “Expedite Departure” or “No Delay” to let the aircraft know to get it in gear and take off immediately. A radio call from ATC would go something like this: ATC: “Cessna 128DP, cleared for take off, runway 16, no delay, straight out departure approved”

How does weight affect maneuvering speed?

The answer is: the maneuvering speed decreases. Let me explain. Airplanes flown at weights below their gross weight require less lift for straight and level flight. … With a speed of 110 knots, at this lower weight, a sudden and very strong gust could increase the angle of attack from 3 to 18 degrees.

What is VMBE?

The maximum brake energy speed. It is a function of the gross weight, altitude, temperature, runway slope, wind component, and braking configuration.

What are the V speeds for airplanes?

Regulatory V-speedsV-speed designatorDescriptionV1The speed beyond which takeoff should no longer be aborted. (See V1 definitions below)V2Takeoff safety speed. The speed at which the aircraft may safely be climbed with one engine inoperative.V2minMinimum takeoff safety speed.V3Flap retraction speed.39 more rows